Technical Guidance

Here you will find data and articles on radiation shielding, frequently asked questions (FAQ), monitor performance, specific gamma ray constants, mathematical derivations, radiation protection widgets  - everything we have personally found useful from our own tool kit. New resources will be uploaded here from time to time.

For formal radiation safety advice, visit our Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA) services page. 

  • Radiation time, distance & shielding interactive ALARP widget

    Published: Mar 29, 2024

    Source: Design & implementation by Dr Chris Robbins (Grallator) / Facilitated by Ionactive radiation protection resource

      Tags:
    • Protection by time
    • Protection by distance
    • Inverse square law
    • Protection by shielding
    • Radiation dose
    • Radiation dose rate
    • TVT
    • 10th value thichness
    • HVT
    • 1/2 value thichness
    • ALARP
    • ALARA
    • As low as reasonably practicable
    • Calculator
    • Gamma rays
    • x-rays
    • Industrial Radiography
    • NDT
    • Medical Radiation
    • RPA
    • RPS
    • ALARP calculator
    • ALARA calculator
    • radiation protection training

    Use this interactive ALARP / ALARA calculator widget to investigate the effect of time, distance and shielding on radiation dose rate and accumulated exposure. A great radiation protection training / educational aid - learn the concepts first, then investigate them interactively! Explore how best to optimise exposure by using a combination of all three protection methods.

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  • X-ray Tube Dose Rate Calculator Widget

    Published: Mar 28, 2024

    Source: Design & implementation by Dr Chris Robbins (Grallator) / Facilitated by Ionactive radiation protection resource

      Tags:
    • X-ray tube dose rate calculator
    • X-ray tube dose rate widget
    • X-ray tube dose rate kV
    • X-ray tube dose rate mA
    • X-ray tube dose rate
    • X-ray tube dose rate filtration
    • NDT x-ray tube dose rate
    • Medical x-ray tube dose rae
    • Research x-ray tube dose rate
    • Bremsstrahlung x-rays
    • Characteristic X-rays
    • Tungsten target
    • Inverse square law
    • Mass Energy Absorption Coefficient
    • Gray (Gy)

    A radiation protection widget which calculates dose rates from an x-ray tube for a given kV, mA and filter (Al). This resource is strictly for training / educational use - that said, as a ballpark resource it gets pretty close to what you might expect from a typical x-ray tube.

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  • Calculate an estimate of x-ray dose rate from an x-ray tube given kV and mA

    Published: Mar 24, 2024

    Source: Dr Chris Robbins, Grallator/ Ionactive Radiation Protection Resource

      Tags:
    • X-ray
    • X-ray dose rate
    • X-ray generator
    • mA
    • kV
    • Calculate x-ray tube output
    • Formula for x-ray tube output
    • Calculate x-ray tube dose rate
    • Anode
    • Cathode
    • Bremsstrahlung x-rays
    • Characteristic X-rays
    • Tungsten target
    • Inverse square law
    • Energy Absorption
    • Mass Energy Absorption Coefficient
    • Gray (Gy)
    • NDT X-ray tube
    • Medical X-ray tube
    • Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA)

    How do you calculate an estimate of dose rate from an X-ray tube give kV and mA? In this resource we consider a 'ballpark' estimate of radiation dose rate using some physics principles, including an estimate of % bremsstrahlung from an anode target, combined with a calculation of power density and consideration of average energy absorption rate.

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  • When \( 1/d^2 \) breaks down - part 2: area source

    Published: Mar 22, 2024

    Source: Dr Chris Robbins, Grallator

      Tags:
    • 1/d2 for an area source
    • Inverse square law
    • radiation
    • radioactive area source
    • Radiation protection mathematics
    • Maths for radiation safety

    When \( 1/d^2 \) breaks down - part 2: area source. Using some mathematics to explore how the inverse square law works with a radiation area source.

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  • When \(1/d^2\) breaks down - part 1: line source

    Published: Mar 22, 2024

    Source: Dr Chris Robbins, Grallator

      Tags:
    • 1/d2 for a line source
    • Inverse square law
    • radiation
    • radioactive line source
    • Radiation protection mathematics
    • Maths for radiation safety

    When \( 1/d^2 \) breaks down - part 1: line source. Using some mathematics to explore how the inverse square law works with a radiation line source.

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  • What is an RPA (Radiation Protection Adviser)?

    Published: Mar 16, 2024

    Source: Ionactive Radiation Protection Resources

      Tags:
    • RPA
    • Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA)
    • Radiation Protection Advisor
    • RPA2000
    • IRR17
    • Ionising Radiations Regulations 2017
    • Notification
    • Registration
    • Consent
    • HSE
    • Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
    • Certain practices
    • Specified practices

    At Ionactive we are often asked 'What is a Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA), and do we need one?' This is an interesting question and concept, since the question is aimed directly at an RPA. We give objective advice and for most uses of ionising radiation a Radiation Protection Adviser is required, sometimes only for initial advice via consultation, but more often than not via an official appointment (in writing). Here is a quick summary of the role of the RPA and why a user of ionising radiation will probably need to appoint an RPA.

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Physics is really nothing more than a search for ultimate simplicity, but so far all we have is a kind of elegant messiness

– Bill Bryson -