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(Nuclear) Fission is the process where a heavy nuclei (e.g. U-235) decays by splitting into two equal fragments (fission fragments). This process proceeds with the emission of Neutrons and Gamma Rays, the neutrons being available to initiated further fissions and thus a nuclear chain reaction. Some nuclides such as Cf-252 can undergo spontaneous fission, although fission is induced in other nuclides such as U-235 by incoming neutrons. The fission fragments can undergo further Radioactive Decay producing a host of fission products.

Physics is really nothing more than a search for ultimate simplicity, but so far all we have is a kind of elegant messiness

– Bill Bryson