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The proton is one of the basic particles that make up an Atom. The proton is found in the Nucleus and has a positive electrical charge equal to the negative charge of an Electron. It has a mass similar to that of a Neutron. The number of protons in an atom defines the Atomic Number and hence the type of Element present.

Physics is really nothing more than a search for ultimate simplicity, but so far all we have is a kind of elegant messiness

– Bill Bryson